BUDDHISM

  1. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompass a variety of tradition, beliefs, and practices largely based on teachings of buddha

BRIEF HISTORY OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA

REAL NAMESIDDHARTHA
TITLESBUDDHA, SHAKYA MUNI
BIRTH563 BC, LUMBINI IN KAPIL VASTU
FATHERS NAMESHUDDHODHANA
MOTHERS NAMEMAHAMAAYA
FOSTER MOTHERMAHAPRAJAPATAI
WIFEYASODHARA
ENLIGHTMENTURUVELA, under the peppal tree
DETH483 BC, KUSHINAGAR

PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM:

  • The doctrine of karma is an essential part of the teachings of buddha
  • It emphasizes the moral quality of humans
  • It neither accepted nor rejected the presence of god
  • It rejected the Vedas and Vedic rituals
  • It strictly rejected the caste system

SYMBOLS REPRESNTING EVENTS ON BUDDHA’S LIFE

  • Birth                      -lotus and bull
  • Renunciation     -horse
  • Enlightenment  -bodhi tree
  • First sermon       -wheel
  • Death                    -stupa

FOUR NOBEL TRUTHS

  1. Sorrow-world is full of sorrow
  2. Desire-the cause of sorrow is the desire
  3. Censaion of sorrow is possible
  4. The path leading to the cessation of sorrow is ashtanga marga

ASHTANGIKA MARGA

  1. This is the great middle path, for it avoids the extremes of gross luxury and severe austerity
  2. The extinction of desire and a state of perfect tranquillity is proven here
  3. Emphasis is laid on the observance of Silas, samadhi, and prajan

DOCTRINES OF BUDDHISM

  1. The noble eightfold path also is known was the ashtangika marga include
  2. Right views                         – Samma-sankappa
  3. Right aspiration                 – Samma-zditthi
  4. Right speech                      – Samma-vakka
  5. Right conduct                    – Samma-kammanta
  6. Right livelihood                    – Samma-ajiva
  7. Right effort                         – Samma-vayamma
  8. Right mindfulness            – Samma-sati
  9. Right meditation              – Samma-samadhi

THE THREE JEWELS:

  • Buddha -the enlightened
  • Dhamma-doctrine
  • Sangha-order

FAMOUS MONKS AT THE TIME OF BUDDHA

AnandaThe constant companion of buddha and most devoted disciple
AnuradhaThe master od’s right mindfulness
MahakassapaThe president of the Buddhist council held at rajagriha
MoggallanaHe had the greatest supernatural powers
SariputtaPossessed the profound insight into the dharma
UpaliMaster of vinaya

BUDDHIST COUNILS

  • The first Buddhist council was held in 483 BC at saptaparni cave, rajagriha, under the chairmanship of mahakasyapa during the reign of ajashatru.
  • Compilation of sutta Pitaka and Vinay Pitaka by Ananda and Upali respectively
  • The second Buddhist council was held in 383 BC at Vaishali, under the chairmanship of sabakami during the reign of kalasoka.
  • Monks were split into sthavirvadins and mahasanghikas during the 2nd Buddhist council
  • The third Buddhist council was held in 250 BC at pataliputra, under the chairmanship of mogaliputta Tisa during the reign of Ashoka
  • Compilation of Abhidhamma Pitaka
  • The fourth Buddhist council was held in 72 ADS at kundalvan Kashmir, under the chairmanship of vasumitra and asvaghosha during the reign of Kanishka.
  • Division of Buddhist into Hinayana and Mahayana happened during the fourth Buddhist council

SECTS OF BUDDHISM

HINAYANA/LESSER WHEEL

  • Its followers believe in the original teachings of buddha
  • They sought individual salvation through self-disciple and meditation
  • They did not believe in idol worship
  • Hinayana is a religion without god, karma taking the place of god
  • The oldest school of Hinayana is the sthavirvadins or the doctrine of the elders, its Sanskrit counterpart is more philosophical and is known as sarvastivada or the doctrine that maintains the existence of all living beings physically and mentally
  • Pali, the language of the masses was used by hinaya Buddhist, Ashoka patronized Hinayana
  • The concept of the bodhisattva is central to the Hinayana sect of Buddhism

MAHAYANA OR GREATOR WHEEL

  • Its followers believed in the heaviness of buddha and sought the line of salvation all through the grace and help of buddha and bodhi satvas
  • It believed in idol worshiping
  • It believed nirvana was a positive state of bliss
  • Mahayana had two philosophical tools the Madhyamika and the yogacharam
  • Madhyamika was proposed by Nagarjuna, it’s midway between the uncompromising realism of Hinayana and the idealism of yogachara
  • Yogacharam school was founded by maitreyanatha. this school completely rejected the realism of himayanism and maintained absolute idealism
  • Sanskrit was the language of scholars was used by Mahayana Buddhist, Kanishka patronized Mahayana

LITERATURE OF BUDDHISM

  • The sutta Pitaka-a collection of buddhas sermon, divided into 5groups
  • The Vinaya Pitaka-it contains the rules and regulation of monastic discipline for monks
  • The abhidhama pitaka-it ascribed to moggalliputta tissa.president of the third council. It contains the profound philosophy of the buddhas teachings
  • The jataka-a collection of over 500 poems, which describes the previous birth of buddha
  • The buddhavamsa-it contains legends of verses about the 24 buddhas who preceded Gautama in earlier times
  • Milinda pahno– the discussion between meanander and nagasena
  • Ceylonese chronicle-dipavamsa, Mahavamsa and culavamsa
  • Vaipulya sutras

BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE:

  • First human statue to be worshipped
  • Stone-pillar deception the life of buddha at Gaya,Sanchi,Bharat
  • Gandhara art and the beautiful images of the buddha
  • Cave architecture in the barbarhills at Gaya and in western India around Nasik
  • Art pieces at Amravati and nagarkunds

BUDDHIST MUDRAS

Mudra in Sanskrit means ‘seal’, ‘mark’ or ‘gesture’. It is common to Sanatan Dharma (especially Hinduism and Buddhism) that has been deeply imbibed in culture, including symbolic iconography, dance forms, yoga, tantra, and martial art. They are spiritual gestures that are meant to channel prana – the inner physical and psychic energy – for specific purposes and effects.The different mudras:

1. Bhumisparsha mudra: Calling the earth to witness the truth as it represents the moment of buddha attaining enlightenment
2. Dhyana mudra: indicates meditation, used by buddha during final meditation under the bodhi tree. Gandara art buddha generally saw in this mudra
3. Vitarka mudra: signifies the teaching phase of preaching Buddhism. maintains a constant flow of energy
4. Abhaya mudra: indicates fearlessness, shown by buddha immediately after attaining enlightenment
5. Dharmachakra mudra: it means turning the wheel of dharma, this is shown while he preached the first sermon
6. Anjali mudra: indicates greetings, devotion (Namaste), it is believed that true buddhas do not make this gesture
7. Uttarabodhi mudra: symbolizes perfection .shakyamuni buddha represents this mudra. it means supreme enlightenment
8. Varada mudra: indicates charity, compassion. signifies generosity, morality, patience, effort, meditative concentration
9. Karana mudra: signifies expelling negative thoughts, sickness
10. Vajra mudra: signifies knowledge. Mathura art form buddha represents this mudra.

The Various Mudras of Buddha in Gandhara Art
Abahayamudra
Dhyanamudra
Dharmachakramudra
Bhumisparshamudra

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN JAINSIM AND BUDDHISM

While Jainism and Buddhism are completely different religions, they do share many similarities in their beliefs and practices.

  • Life after Death

Both religions believe in reincarnation, which is the rebirth of the soul in a new body after the death of the previous body. They also believe the soul can eventually, through enlightenment, exist in a permanent state of paradise. They also don’t believe in a hell or a final judgment of the soul.

  • Karma

Both religions believe in the concept of karma, which is an attachment of positive and negative forces to the soul based on a person’s actions, beliefs, and spiritual attachments. Reincarnation carries this force forward and requires effort to purify the soul. A soul cannot attain enlightenment or reach paradise with negative karma weighing them down.

  • Enlightenment

Both Jainism and at least some prominent forms of Buddhism believe a person can reach enlightenment during a single lifetime, but also that people must abandon the suffering caused by desires. They do horrible things to get what they want, but they also suffer when they want something they cannot have.

  • God and Scripture

Neither religion believes in God as the creator of the universe. They acknowledge all creation as being part of the universe’s divinity. As such, their holy texts are not considered the word of a god or sacred stories. Their scriptures are teaching tools to help guide the individual to enlightenment through thought and practice.

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