JAINISM

  1. The origin of Jainism is still unknown, it is believed that the 24 Tirthankaras were useful for the development and origin of the religion, but the first twenty-two are of doubtful history contemporary economics and political development
  2. Jainism did not give much importance to the notion of birth for the social status they attracted Vaishyas to their fold
  3. Rishabdev was the first Tirthankara
  4. Vishnu Purana and Bhagwat Purana mentioned Rishabdev as the personal incarnation of Lord Narayana

PERSONAL HISTORY OF MAHAVIRA         

TitlesMahavira, Nayaputa, Nigrantha
Birth540BC
Place of birthKundagrama in Vaishali
Fathers nameSiddhartha
Mothers nameTrishala
WifeYashoda
ClassKshatriya
ClanNyaya
EnlightenmentRiver rjiupalika
CompanionGosala makkhaliputra
DeathPavapuri near rajagriha-468BC

PHILOSPHY OF JAINISM

  • It rejected the authority of the Vedas and the Vedic rituals.
  • According to Jainism, the world was not created, maintained, and destroyed by a personal god but by a universal law
  • It didn’t believe in the existence of god it believed in the existence of karma and transmigration of the soul
  • It advocated the path of non-violence
  • Other important aspects of the philosophy were
  • Anekantavada- object of knowledge is of infinite characteristics
  • A nayavada-an individual understands and objected of knowledge through a particular point of view
  • Saptabhanginya-seven point of view to understand an object of knowledge
  • Syadvada-understanding of an object of knowledge is conditional

DOCTRINES OF JAINISM

  1. Ahimsa                 -non-violence
  2. Satya                     -truthfulness
  3. Asteya                  -non-stealing
  4. Brahmacharya   -celibacy
  5. Aparigraha          -non-possession of the property

FIVE VOWS OR PRINCIPLES

  1. The householder had to observe the following five vows
  2. Non -injury
  3. Non-stealing
  4. Speaking the truth
  5. Non-possession
  6. Non-adultery
  7. The first four principles were given by Prashanth while the 5th was added by Mahavira

THE THREE JEWELS

  1. Right knowledge              -samyak Gyan                    -understanding of religious principles
  2. Right faith                           – samyak Vishwas             -belief Janina’s
  3. Right action                        -samyak karma                  -observance of the 5vows

JAIN’S ARCHITECHTURE

  • The image of a Tirthankara from lohaonjpur (Patna) during the Mauryan period is the earliest Jaina figures
  • Caves from hathigumpha, baghagumpha, udaygiri, and Chandragiri(orissa)
  • Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, Vimala vasahi and tejapala temples
  • Statue of gomateshwara or Bahubali in Mysore
  • Many important temples are found in the region of Gujarat and Bihar

ROYAL PATRONS

  • South India-the rashtrakuta dynasty, the Chalukyas were the last great patrons of Jainism
  • North India-haryanaka, Mauryan, Avanti, Sindhi-sauvira, Kalinga were the last patrons

JAINA COUNCILS

  • The first Jain Council was held at pataliputra under sthulabahu around 300BC
  • The second Jaina council was held at vallabhi in AD 512 under kshamaramana

THE 24 TIRTHANKARAS

  • Rishabh                                -bull
  • Ajitanatha                           -elephant           
  • Sambhavanatha               -horse
  • Abhinandananatha         -monkey
  • Sumatinatha                      -curlew
  • Padmaprabha                    -red lotus
  • Suparshvanatha               -svastika
  • Chandraprabha                 -crescent
  • Pushpadanta                     -crocodile
  • Shitalanatha                      -wishing tree
  • Shreyanasanatha             -rhinoceros
  • Vasupujya                           -buffalo
  • Vimalanatha                      -boar
  • Anantanatha                      -falcon
  • Dharmanatha                    -vajardana
  • Shantinatha                       -deer
  • Kunthunatha                     -he-deer
  • Aranatha                             -fish
  • Māllīnātha                          -water pot
  • Munisuvrata                      -tortoise
  • Naminatha                         -blue lotus
  • Neminatha                         -conch
  • Parshvanatha                    -serpent
  • Mahavira                             -lion

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