The landing of the Portuguese under the leadership of Vasco da Gama at Calicut by the close of the 15th century is considered to be e landmark in the history of India’s maritime trade

Their arrival on the Indian soil was followed by the advent of the European companies and the resultant monopolization of India’s coastal and maritime trade by the Europeans

THE PORTUGUESE

  1. Princess Henry of Portugal encouraged voyages for the discovery of sea-routes to India following which Bartolomeu Dias reached cape of good hope in AD1498
  2. Vasco da Gama from Lisbon discovered a new sea route from Europe to Asia via cape with a good hope
  3. He was helped by a Gujarati navigator ibn majid
  4. He landed at Calicut on the 21st May 1498, then under the zamorin enjoyed a high degree of prosperity
  5. Vasco da Gama returned to Portugal in AD 1499
  6. A second expedition under Pedro Alvares Cabral in AD1500
  7. A fresh expedition under Vasco da Gama which started in AD1502 demanded from the zamorin the banishment of every Muslim resident from Calicut
  8. He strengthened the factories at Cochin and cannore and left a squadron to supervise the Malabar coast and to destroy all Arab vessels coming to it from the red sea
  9. The Portuguese maritime empire acquired the name of Estado da India which intend to monopolize the pepper and spice trade of the east

IMPORTANT PORTUGUESE GOVERNORS

FRANCISCO-DE-ALMEIDA(1505-1509 AD)

  1. The first governor of the Portuguese territory who also fortified fort manual in cochin and built a fort at anjediva
  2. In a naval battle fought near chaul, the combined Muslim fleet won a victory over the Portuguese fleet under Almeida’s son defeated and killed in the battle
  3. A year later Almeida defeated the combined Muslim fleet  in a naval battle near Diu

ALFONSO-DE-ALBUQUERQUS(1509-1515AD)

  • The conquest of goa from Adil shahi sultan of Bijapur was albuqerquos first achievement feburary1510
  • But as the city was quickly recaptured by the sultan of Bijapur he had to undertake a second expedition
  • He recaptured the place and fortified it against any surprise attack
  • The conquest of goa,” the seal on Portuguese naval supremacy along the souther-west coast”

NINO DA CUNHA

  • Established settlements at san thome near madras and hughli in Bengal and thus, developed commerce on the eastern coast
  • In AD 1534 the Portuguese secured permission to build factories at satgaon and Chittagong from the sultan of Bengal
  • Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India
  • Later the capital was transferred to goa by Nina da Cunha
  • In AD 1535, Cunha got possession of Diu and Bassein from bahadur shah of Gujarat
  • Gradually, almost all of their territories were lost to Marathas in AD 1739
  • Only goa,diu, and Damon remained with them until AD1961
  • By AD 15722, the Asiatic empire Portugal was divided into three independent commands
  • A governorship at Mozambique, controlling the settlements on the African coast
  • A viceroyalty at goa, in charge of the Indian and Persian territories
  • A governorship at malacca to control the trafe of java and thee spice archipelago
  • Vasco da Gama visited India three times and was buried at fort Kochi
  • Fransico Xavier a famous saint came to India in the period of martinD’ Sousa to spread Christianity in India and Asia

THE DUTCH

  1. Vereenigde oostindische Compagnie(VOC) popularly known as dutch united east India company was formed in AD 1602
  2. The skillful administrative system and enthusiastic national support which the company enjoyed enabled it to monopolize the entire spice trade to Europe

DUTCH SETTELMENTS IN INDIA

  1. On the Malabar coast-the only port belonging to them on this side was venguria to the north of goa

after a bitter struggle for power,dutch were finally defeated by English in the battle of bedara,1759

  • On the coromandel coast

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